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Шри Чайтанья Чаритамрита. Ади-Лила, Глава 2. Стихи 26-46. Чтение и комментарии | Лекция Б.Ч. Бхарати Свами (Александр Драгилев) от 23 августа 2017 года

Шри Чайтанья Чаритамрита. Ади-Лила, Глава 2 «Шри Чайтанья — Всевышний в изначальном облике» Стихи 26-46

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KP6OzfzRM_U

ADI-LILA. Chapter 2.  The Supreme Lord in His Primordial Form

Verses 26-46. Reading and Comments

Bhakti Chaitanya Bharati Swami, August 23, 2017

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Here is Verse 25 of Chapter 2. Any objections on what we previously read?

LISTENER: When did the author write it? How many years after the Lord’s departure passed?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Perhaps, 40 or 30 years.

LISTENER: Was Nityananda-Prabhu there at that time?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: I don’t know. Did you try to google it? There might be a written biography of Krishnadas Kaviraj.

Verse 26.

The followers of gyana, the path of knowledge, and yoga, the path of self-restraint, rise up to the Universal Truth, though the former perceive it as Brahman, the infinite, and the latter as Paramatma, the indefinite.

We’ve already discussed these words. The Supreme Lord has three main phases of existence, i.e. Bhagavan, Paramatma, and Brahman. All three come from one root/source. Brahman is limitless; Paramatma is indefinite because it’s impossible to define it in any way; Bhagavan is definite. The paradox is that the definite, Bhagavan, which is limited and defined, stands higher and is the overwhelming phase of existence of the Supreme and Only. Nothing exists but Him. All the rest existing is manifestation of His energies. We also discussed that Brahman is general existence, Paramatma is an essential entity, and Bhagavan is a personality.

We say: sat-chit-ananda. Brahman cannot be without Paramatma. Sat and chit cannot be disconnected. Sat is existence, chit is consciousness. Consciousness cannot be without existence and existence is impossible when not reflected in consciousness. As Sridhar Maharaj says, the subject is inseparable from the object. No object exists if it isn’t observed by someone. The only place where objects exist is the mind. No observer – no objects, consequently, all objects are the function of consciousness. Objects do not exist as such; they are phases of existence of consciousness, one of forms of existence of consciousness, hence, Brahman is the result of existence of Paramatma. The same is applicable to Bhagavan. Bhagavan is an entity with sense experience. He is active and existence is one of forms of His activity. Bhagavan doesn’t just observe but also moves. The aspect of the observer demands what is being observed. Thus, the Lord is sat-chit-ananda, the observer with certain emotions who observes the existing things.

This verse tells that various mini-observers and atma(s) can get in touch with the Supreme differently, each in its own way. By some of them, the same thing can be conceived as something while the others may see it as indefinite. The gyani apperceive the limitless. The yogis shrink into themselves to suddenly discover the one who is observing them. Naturally, they cannot see that one with their eyes but only through an instrument called the pure reason, buddhi. Once again:

The followers of gyana, the path of knowledge, and yoga, the path of self-restraint, rise up to the Universal Truth, though the former perceive it as Brahman, the infinite, and the latter as Paramatma, the indefinite.

The next verse:

(27)        The example with the Sun God shows that different degrees of approaching the Truth reveal different faces of the Truth.

(28)        Krishna and Narayana is the same person in different images.

(29)        The first One appears with two hands holding His flute. The second One has four hands holding a conch, fire disc, mace, and lotus flower.

Here comes a quote from the Bhagavatam, when Brahma addresses Krishna, in the story of the calves’ theft.

‘Are You not that very Lord Narayana resting on the Universe waters, the Soul of the living, guide of the heart, witness of all deeds? No, You are the source of Lord Narayana, You are the Truth, and He is Your dream, Your brilliantly shining dream.’ (Srimad-Bhagavatam: 10.14.14)

After this episode, Brahma tells Him about his love emphasizing that He is not Narayana but higher than Narayana while Narayana is only His dream. That’s how the Lord’s world goes on: an Indian boy with a flute, having watched a Bollywood film, imagined he is a god with four hands, a fire disc, etc. And it is the truth because we live in the universe of that Indian boy. There might be other boys. I met a devotee who told me that actually there’re many Krishna(s) and we know Krishna of our universe while in other places they’re different ones. We believe that in our universe there’s nothing higher than Krishna.

LISTENER: What’s the way to oppose this?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: You can ban the guy. Or you can say, I am that boy. Suppose, Krishna is not one and only, then there’re many of them with different names, and when there are multitude of them we can talk about the concept ‘all’. Multitude inevitably implies this concept of all and, consequently, the next part of this chain will be the concept of infinity. ‘All’ is inevitably limitless. It cannot be vice visa. Why? Think on the contrary; if ‘all’ ultimately comes to the end it means that something interferes; there is already something. Provided there is ‘all’ it must be higher than any separate thing. So, when we say there’re many other Krishna(s) we mean there is something general which includes qualities of individuals. Talking about multitude we know that any quality essential for a part of multitude is kept in general. If a thing in multitude has some energy this means such energy is present in the whole multitude, i.e. for many things it is manifested to the infinite degree. The one that unites all has energy, attraction, and some other unlimited properties, which means He is almighty. So, we say we’re worshipping Krishna who is the highest of all. I think if a person is saying there’re many other Krishna(s) he purportedly gives himself a chance to become one of them. That man had an idea of some highest civilization, a sort of super-universal, galactic civilization which sends its special representatives for us. In our case, it is a boy with the flute. For some other place it might be… Schwarzenegger.

LISTENER: The mayavada might be thinking in the same way when saying that Krishna emerged from maya.

BHARATI MAHARAJ: It might be so. The impersonal doesn’t have will and you do that’s why you can become the highest one, which sounds rather tempting. If we take the Creator as authority, he is talking to that little boy who has just hacked the program… What is a creator? It is a program. He sits like that ‘god’ in The Newest Testament movie writing codes on his Pentium; he creates laws (When you take a line in a supermarket it shall be the longest). Let’s imagine that Brahma the Creator is a super programmer who writes textures for us and we live within these textures. He writes textures and we detect some disorder which happens once a day. There’s a bug there and the god tries to fight it and cuts it out; there’s a little boy lifting a hill… an unbelievable disorder.

He thinks it’s a program virus and cuts it out but the bug doesn’t disappear, the boy goes on tricking with the calves. Contrary to the movie character, Brahma didn’t take his reality from the blue; he had a meeting with Narayana and the Lord gave him the blessings and the substance, all the textures ready to create. Brahma doesn’t create randomly, he creates from the matter given by the Supreme Lord; the matter is divided into five solid and three subtle elements for creating forms. For Brahma, Narayana is his Adi-guru, his first master who taught him how to create. In this verse, Brahma grasps that the One he is addressing now is higher than his guru who inspired him to create. That’s why he is saying,

 ‘Are You not that very Lord Narayana resting on the Universe waters, the Soul of the living, guide of the heart, witness of all deeds? No, You are the source of Lord Narayana, You are the Truth, and He is Your dream, Your brilliantly shining dream.’

The next verse:

Having stolen Krishna’s playmates and calves Brahma, creator of the Universe, begged the Lord to forgive him for the offense.

This is also taken from the Bhagavatam, Chapter 13 of Canto 10, if I’m not mistaken.

‘I came into the world from the lotus growing from Your navel. You are both my Father and Mother.’

 ‘Parents are always indulgent to pranks of their children so please, do not punish me, my Lord, and bestow Your mercy.’

Krishna answered, ‘Oh Brahma, your father is Almighty Narayana and not Me. I am just a kid, a little shepherd serving at my parents’ home’.

How come this little boy riding friends on his back can be Narayana and even higher than Narayana?

LISTENER: Does Brahma forget what’s going on every day or ..?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Actually, Brahma hardly remembers anything. Each day, many things fade away and the creation goes on in a different way. His days do not resemble one another. Same with us, each day we wake up to see something different happen… depending on what you did and drink before going to bed, of course.

LISTENER: Where does Brahma exist?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: In the mind of Narayana. When Narayana goes to sleep all Brahmas enter His body. Everything goes within. No universe exists at that time.

LISTENER: When Narayana is sleeping, who observes Him?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Krishna does. Narayana is the dream of Krishna, that boy. More precisely, Narayana is the dream of Balarama. Balarama has a very morbid imagination that’s why he invents all this. Krishna doesn’t need to bother Himself inventing something; His only business is to consume.

Brahma went on, ‘You are cunning, my Lord. You are Narayana the Almighty personally and I am going to prove that to You’.

‘All living beings in the mundane and eternal realms are born of You. You are the One and Only Soul of life.

Here is the way to prove it.

As all clay pots come from the earth and return into it, all conscious beings come from You and find peace in You.

Proof No. 2 is also from 10.13 of the Bhagavatam. What we consider pottery is actually earth; it was clay only a few days ago, and will be clay again in a time. We just believe it to be a pot and not clay. Again,

As all clay pots come from the earth and return into it, all conscious beings come from You and find peace in You.

Djiva is like a pot. It didn’t exist and will not. Djivas find peace in the body of Narayana when the multiform existence cease and everything returns to formless condition. All comes from formless and returns to non-figurative existence.  Djiva ends as individuality when the whole massive of djivas return into the body of Narayana. Then He exhales letting out universes, including all forms, djivas, etc. Every universe has its own life as well as each Brahma does. Universes live as if flickering; Brahmas don’t ‘go to bed’ all together. They return into Narayana all at a time.

LISTENER: Djiva becomes Brahma, from zero, it has not memory. Brahma starts creating, then in what way Kumaris and other entities like, for examples, grass appear?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: I should thin over why one living entities are born as grass and other continue sitting on the lotus. The Bhagavatam describes it differently in its different parts; the script slightly changes. Here, we read that Brahma saw Narayana resting on Sheshanaga. In other story, he saw the Divine Couple, through a sound. There’re different stories in the Puranas. Every day of Brahma’s waking up is a bit different.

LISTENER: In the very first moment, when Brahma appears to create, does he have any idea of how to create his play? Do all Brahmas perceive the supreme world in the same way or differently?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: It’s up to the Supreme Lord to decide how to be perceived. There might be some optimization when everything is shown in the same way. When we happen to be in a foreign country each of us has his/her own impression of it. One might visit the slums, one can stay with the rich, and the third one might not leave the airport. When asked about Spain, the latter will say that Spain is a very big airport. Same with Brahma. The spiritual world, Vaikuntha or Goloka, is infinite while the material world is too small compared with the whole being. Each Brahma perceives different aspects in his own way.

LISTENER: What is the criterion for Brahma’s degradation? Is it when he gets too proud? He creates, he does the Lord’s will which means he serves the Lord. Can he degrade when doing his service?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: At first, he is asking for permission to serve the Lord. As soon as he inputs his ego into the service he’s caught by illusion and thinks he is an independent entity.

LISTENER: Is trapped by illusion because of his imperfect service or under Krishna’s will?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: It’s due to Krishna, according to His wish. Brahma is the first guru in Brahma-sampradaya. In the Middle Ages, an argue took place whether guru is apt to be in illusion; you cannot assume your first guru might be trapped by illusion. One of the masters argued then this was what the Lord wanted. In case Brahma doesn’t get into illusion we cannot have this wonderful Lila with Krishna’s friends and their calves’ theft. This illusion is under Krishna’s will. Brahma gets into the trap of illusion even during the act of creation when he lusts for his own daughter; his other children are shocked with such behavior and Brahma gets rid of his body.

Getting back to your question about grass, at the first stage of creation, only perfect entities get birth. These are enlightened gods that already got freedom like Narada, Four Kumaris, and Shiva. Brahma starts with them. Then he is trapped by illusion and dies. In the Bhagavatam, we read that he dies several times during the creation and rejects his body several times, i.e. the creation is going on while Brahma dies and appears again.

LISTENER: Is he aware of what he does? Is he doing this for Krishna?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Sometimes he does and sometimes forgets. When the demons are attacking, when  a coup d’état is on the universe agenda, they come to Brahma as the chief arbiter. Sometimes Brahma can cope but when he cannot, when the things are too bad, they all go to the Milk Ocean where Narayana lies and give their prayers to Him asking Him to come down. When Brahma is deep in illusion and cannot change things on his own we should remember that this is the Lord’s plan. Within His concept, any system tends to degrade and destruct itself. This is His plan. He could have made a perfect system but made it so that it fails, for Him to come and repair it. […] Remember, how Brahma once was attacked by demons he created from his shadow? They started grabbing his joints; to stop that he threw away his body; the demons followed the body and devoured it.

LISTENER: What kind of body ?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Brahma doesn’t have a material body; it consists of mind and reason.

LISTENER: When Brahma kills his body do all the others disappear?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: No. Narada, Kumaris, Saraswati, and all are there. He gets a new body for him and goes on creating.

LISTENER: When the Supreme Lord descends to the earth the gods queue to join his close circle. Does the Lord come with his own circle to plays with his closest devotees?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Not exactly. Accidental passers-by happen. The Lord’s closest circle accompanies Him; these are his devotees from four rasas; dasya, vatsalya, sakhya, and madhurya. They all come together with Him. The next circle consists of gods that ask for His grace. And then comes the circle allowing just ordinary passers-by; the Lord saves all of them.

LISTENER: Are they random people or those who got the permission?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: I believe, without random/accidental choice there would be no Beauty. When you see the president walking in the park you hardly suppose there’re accidental people there to shake hands with him, right? It’s quite opposite with the Supreme Lord; only with random people involved you can call it a game.

So, what Brahma says is:

As all clay pots come from the earth and return into it, all conscious beings come from You and find peace in You.

Next verse:

The word ‘nara’ denotes all living beings in total and ‘ayana’ means refuge.

You are the Soul of every living being, hence You are primordial Narayana. This is my first argument.

Brahma has his weighty reasons to consider the Lord the Soul of every living being. Brahma cannot create souls and doesn’t know where Krishna gets them. Brahma creates forms; then the god of destiny decides what forms will take the living beings. By the way, god Yama was also created on the first place, with Brahma, Narada, and Kumaris. Sometimes it is said that Vishnu becomes Yamaraj; sometimes Vishnu becomes Brahma, when no other candidates for the position are found. Brahma has the illusion that he creates Kumaris, his children. In the game with the calves, when Brahma can count all existing then souls, he cannot figure out how that group of boys and calves appear. He can understand that he is been manipulated by that boy. He has stolen that boy’s friends and calves and the boy managed to create the same bunch again. Krishna multiplied Himself into his friends and calves allowing the souls of brahmans’ wives feel vatsalya-rasa. Before this mercy, it was only Yashoda, His mother who could cuddle and feed him; Krishna allowed same emotions towards Him for other women of the village. Brahma can detach some program fail in the game; he can see the boy is the reason of this fail. Brahma guessed that He could manage the souls and increase them in number, etc., that’s why he comes to the conclusion: You are the soul of every living being, You are Narayana giving refuge to all souls. These are Brahma’s arguments.

You are the Soul of every living being, hence You are primordial Narayana. This is my first argument.

Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Sustainer, and Shiva the Destroyer are purusha-avatars who rule the life of the whole universe. But You are higher in power and perfections, so I consider You the primordial Lord and Father of all and everyone. Three superior gods maintain the universe by power You bestowed on them.

 You patronize the Universal Trinity, the refuge of every living being, so You are the primordial patron, Narayana.

And here is my third argument. In the countless number of created and non-created universes You witness what everyone does in the past, present, and future. You know what every living being thinks and does.

The Universe cannot exist but when You observe it. Every move and deed is possible due to Your look.

Your eyes can see all paths of all living beings, so You are their primordial patron, Narayana.

That will do for today. Next time we’ll start with Verse 47. Any doubts? […]

LISTENER: I heard there’re three entities we cannot conceive; these are djiva, guru, and Shiva. How does it go with djiva? What about the ups and downs?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Regarding djiva’s ups and downs, it’s quite clear. What is not clear is that we cannot decompose it into more conceivable elements. For example, to give you the understanding of what a phone is I’ll use more simple notions than a phone. I’ll tell you that a phone is a screen, a motherboard, etc. You can ask me what a screen is. I’ll tell you it’s a piece of glass with wires. You can ask about the wires and I’ll again use more simple words. But we cannot explain what djiva is using more simple explanations. Djiva is a limit/bound. Same is with Shiva. They are taken in total; then, one djiva is divided/split up into many.

LISTENER: What about the guru?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Guru is above Shiva and doesn’t split up into more simple parts. That will do for today.

Translator Elizabeth D.

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