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Шри Чайтанья Чаритамрита. Ади-Лила, Глава 2. Стихи 55-67. Чтение и комментарии | Лекция Б.Ч. Бхарати Свами (Александр Драгилев) от 3 сентября 2017 года

Шри Чайтанья Чаритамрита. Ади-Лила, Глава 2 «Шри Чайтанья — Всевышний в изначальном облике» Стихи 55-67

54 стих был прочитан в ходе лекции в Германии от 25 августа 2017

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDM8H5_aTsg

ADI-LILA. CHAPTER 2. THE SUPREME LORD IN HIS PRIMORDIAL FORM. VERSES 55-67

Bhakti Chaitanya Bharati Swami, September 3, 2017

We continue with Verse 55:

‘This is how special the Supreme Lord is. Three deceptive qualities that every living entity acquires getting in touch with the nature are helpless before Him,  for He is the magician creating the omnipresent illusion, and those that find refuge in Krishna develop in the Truth and become invulnerable for the deceptive material nature.’ (Srimad Bhagavatam: 1.11.38)

The living entity is a static observer but, getting in touch with the magical nature of the Supreme Lord, the static observer thinks that it starts moving, in other words, starts acting. There are three degrees of moving intensity; these are satva, rajas, and tamas. Satva is moving too, although more resembling the state of a static observer. Rajas is a very intensive action or moving; it’s excitement. And tamas is a natural faculty when an observer is in the state of obscurity; it stays static but cannot see anything. Satva is close to the static condition but it is the state of static perception of everything while tamas is practically a blackout, non-perception. Naturally, these are three main state degrees, with a certain grade in-between. In the Gita, Krishna says that there is no pure state of rajas, tamas, and satva. All three constantly mingle, with one of them prevailing. So, all living entities depend on the illusionary nature and this illusionary nature makes them percept themselves as moving doers. And the Lord who drives all other living entities into the conditioned state, or deceiving all other living being, is never deceived by His deception. Speaking in the words of the Vedas, He doesn’t depend on maya because He is producer of maya. As a spider cannot be caught into his own net, similarly the Lord is never caught into the net of maya. Once again,

This is how special the Supreme Lord is. Three deceptive qualities that every living entity acquires getting in touch with the nature are helpless before Him, for He is the magician creating the omnipresent illusion, and those that find refuge in Krishna develop in the Truth and become invulnerable for the deceptive material nature.’ (Srimad Bhagavatam: 1.11.38)

It is said here that those that find Krishna and contemplate Him are not affected, as the Lord Himself, by illusion.  We should note here that Krishna has two natures, internal, so to say for inner use, and external, for external use. Yoga-maya is internal, as we know, and mahamaya is external. Maha-maya disguises Him from us, i.e. when a living entity is in maya he cannot see the Lord at all; a living entity can see himself as reflection of the Lord’s nature. Under maha-maya, living entities see themselves in the wrong way, in illusion. Under yoga-maya, they see the Lord in the wrong way. The Lord is almighty, all-knowing, all-pervasive but, under the influence of His deceptive inner nature which changes living entities’ perception, living entities cannot see Him nor as almighty, nor all-knowing and all-pervasive. A living entity is captivated by the Lord Himself and stays in illusionary condition. In maha-maya, a living entity is conditioned by self-deception. This is the difference between yoga-maya and maha-maya. Maha-maya is self-deception because living entities see themselves in the wrong way; yoga-maya is when they see Krishna in the wrong way, e.g. as a shepherd boy or a baby. Both are illusion.

Next verse 56.

You are the supreme refuge of three Almighty Lords. You certainly are Primordial Narayana.

This also comes from the Bhagavatam. We’ll specify where they are taken from.

 ‘The source of these three rulers of the world is Narayana and He personally comes from You.  You are the eternal refuge of the Supreme Lord and His forms.’

This must be Brahma talking to Krishna. Brahma argues that Krishna is not just a God but Krishna is the source from which the Lord comes.

Hence, Brahma the Creator believes that the Lord of the material and transcendental worlds is, though a holistic, but manifestation of Krishna.

It is said here that the Lord, having taken the three-folded image, supports the universe and acts as a linking chain, the onlooker of the whole existence, i.e. the Lord Almighty becomes Ksirodakashai Vishnu, Garbhodakashai Vishnu, and Karanodakashai Vishnu. Garbhodakashai Vishnu lying in the Universe egg also becomes three-folded in Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Almighty and Shiva the Destroyer. Then, the primordial Vishnu sustains everything internally, externally, and in-between. Then Brahma says that the shepherd boy is even higher than the primordial Vishnu.

The Truth stated in that verse (Verse 30 of this Chapter) speaks the essence of the Bhagavata Purana. This idea is variously expressed in the principal Holy Scripture.

This text is from the Srimad Bhagavatam and Krishnadas claims that this text is the essence of the Bhagavata Purana as a whole. ‘Are you not that very God, Lord Narayana resting on the Universe waters, the Soul of the living, guide of their hearts, witness of all deeds? No, You are the source of Lord Narayana. You are the Truth, and He is Your dream, Your brilliantly shining dream.’ (SB: 10.14.14) Krishnadas Kaviraj Goswami believes that the universe and the notion of truth are the dream of the shepherd boy. What is the truth? Truth means ‘immovable’, something you cannot move, which is always on its place, inviolable/immutable, never collapses or changes. The truth contains everything and is eternal. Philosophically, we can understand that only one thing can be immutable and that is – all/everything. In China, they say everything changes in this world except changes. Changes are immutable; they always exist. As to the truth, this is something really constant. Again, from the philosophical point, we can understand that ‘constant’ is applicable only to what fills everything with itself. Constant means all. When we isolate a form, field, etc., define it, affirm something within all, set limits – this is not the truth any more. The truth is not apt to definitions because the truth is constant; what can be defined is apt to changes and destruction. Borders of such definitions vary in time and space. The truth is all, with no limits/borders. And Brahma says here: You are higher that the Truth. If the Truth is constant He who is higher does not change. It appears that the one who has the form and definition is higher than the undefined one, i.e. Lord Krishna is the supreme one. The Supreme Lord is above all and never mingles. He stands separately. Is that possible? Here’s how the devotees define Krishna: He is higher than that; He is the fourth; He is higher than existence not being event connected with it.

The next verse:

Not knowing that Brahman — the spirit, atma – the soul, and Bhagavan – the Lord are three derivatives of Krishna, ignorant philosophers speculate on the priority of these three.

In fact, all theological teachings argue what is primary – the infinite light originating every soil, consciousness, the observer emitting the infinite light, or the God emanating both, the observer and brahman. The Vaishnavas are those who tell that Bhagavan prevails and He is above all. Atma and the static observer emerge from Him; and the static object of observation comes out of atma. Due to Bhagavan who affects atma, brahman – the static object of observation – starts moving, and images that we can observe are affected by Bhagavan. This is what the Vaishnavas believe. The mayavada argue that there is brahman producing individualities; atma emerges from brahman, and atma produces the god, Bhagavan. An individual consciousness emerges from the single and indivisible and this consciousness bears an idea that there is a certain god, although there is no other than brahman, existence, light; but in illusion I make up images, including the image of a god. They also say any image is illusion. The Vaishnavas agree here but then the mayavada say that the image of the god is illusion as well.

There’s a philosophy called atmanism telling that an individual consciousness stays in illusion and observes brahman eternally. Due to certain practices atma becomes Bhagavan; having acknowledged brahman, a kind of omnipresent entity, atma turns into Bhagavan; atma is primordial and becomes god as a result of some practices. This is one of three philosophies. The mayavada philosophy says that brahman is the single light and atma is isolated from there, and then atma invents brahman and Bhagavan. The third philosophy is Vaishnavism and here we have Bhagavan, with His conscious energy called djivatattva; He influences djivatattva so that it starts perceiving the immovable spirit as a play of light and shadow but, at a certain appeasement condition, atma starts observing eternal Bhagavan.

Actually, all given and existing philosophies fit these three categories. They might use different terms, be based on different myths but essentially they argue on the same things; the only difference is the priority, what is higher – the spirit, soul or god. So,

Not knowing that Brahman — the spirit, atma – the soul, and Bhagavan – the Lord are three derivatives of Krishna, ignorant philosophers speculate on the priority of the three.

All philosophical and theological discussions tend to answer one question, what prevails – the spirit, soul of god. Materialism as a form of theology, i.e. atheism, rejection of god, is preoccupied with the same question. By the way, it’s similar to the mayavada idea; they say that matter is eternal and is changes/develops eternally, and it doesn’t need any onlooker, or conscious observer. Apart from existence, white dwarfs and black holes float somewhere in space, and, at some phase of this chaotic being, cell division occurs, and matter starts becoming aware of itself. Then, consciousness ends up in non-being while matter continues to be. Consciousness is secondary to matter, i.e. matter is eternal and consciousness might be or not be. Krishnadas tell us that these three philosophies are more or less wrong because what prevails is not the god, spirit or soul (Bhagavan, atma, brahman) but Krishna, the boy born in prison who survived by magic, and was educated in the village by Yashoda and Nanda. Paramatma, brahman, and Bhagavan come from this shepherd boy. Krishnadas Kaviraj is writing this and we cannot deny his objective approach. Next,

They believe that the primordial Lord is Narayana and Krishna is His manifestation only because Narayana has four hands and Krishna only two like a human being.

More hands you have closer to the truth you are. Based on this logic, Kali is higher because she has eight hands.

The next Verse:

The Bhagavata Purana disproves all such speculations.

Text 1.2.11 of the Bhagavata Purana says: ‘Those bestowed by the Truth claim that the Truth is placid and beyond good and evil. The Truth is Brahman everywhere, Paramatma in everything, and is Bhagavan, an arbitrary personality. The Truth is infinite. The Truth is in the heart of every thing and has a particular separated image’.

Do all of you know that the Bhagavata Purana is another name for the Srimad Bhagavatam?

Krishnadas gives this quote to prove his idea that the Truth shows itself as brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan; hence, it is not the first, nor the second, or the third.

My dear reader, think thoroughly on these words. One entity appears in three forms.

Here, Krishnadas addresses us as his readers.

Krishna is single and undividable entity, the Absolute Truth appearing as Brahman — an infinite everything, atma – an indefinite unit, and Bhagavan – a definite entity.

We discussed in detail that this ‘something’ is called turyam and manifests as the infinite, indefinite, and definite.

If this is positive with you, my dear reader, I shall show one more verse from the Bhagavata. (1.3.28)

‘The given above images of the Supreme Entity are plenary or partial forms of His Personality. Krishna, however, prevails among them. He is His own cause. He is the Absolute in person. He takes different images, from millennium to millennium, to tame the villains that dare violate the order established by the Lord of the Universe.’

LISTENER: I have a question, Maharaj. If He is – all then why He is limited by avatars, descends, etc.? Why cannot He appear just here and now?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Yes, He can.

LISTENER: With no notice in advance?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Right. Here your next word should be: Let him appear then.

LISTENER: No, He will never appear.

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Why? Because it’s up to Him to decide. He reveals Himself in a form He considers. And He can reveal Himself to some person present here while others will not see Him. He says He reveals Himself as much as the soul’s devotion increases coming closer to the original image. He has an original image. At his most happy moments, a human being stays himself; the rest is more or less playing, his fantasy; but at his happiest moment a man is himself. When the Lord feels happy it’s Himself; the rest is His various images, more or less closer to the original one. When is He happy? When He feels devotion. He is happy in the circle of loving hearts of His devotees and reveals His true face. Of course, He can show Himself as He likes. Moses saw Him in the image of a bush. There’re also forms of the Supreme Lord that result from a certain algorithm.

LISTENER: Practicing?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: Yes, practicing. You take a practice, a regularly repeated formula, and will certainly see the Lord’s image. That will be Paramatma. When a yogi takes an eight-staged practice he will see Paramatma in the long run, which doesn’t depend on Paramatma’s will. Imagine Paramatma is an image of a TV speaker; I switch on the TV set and can see it; this doesn’t depend on the speaker’s wish. Similarly with Paramatma; I switch on my inner TV, i.e. concentrate on myself and contemplate (samaddhi) the image of the Supreme Lord.

LISTENER: But I cannot communicate, like when watching a picture?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: No way. Like with a TV speaker; you can swear or piss on him but he will go on smiling and reading his text. If you put a curtain on the screen the speaker won’t change his position to see you or come out of the screen to say ‘Hello’ to you. Apart from the speaker’s image, there’s also a human person; you might go to his house to spit in his face but he won’t open his door to everyone; even if you know his address you cannot get in; he will open his door only when he wishes. Your own endeavor is not enough to be invited into the speaker’s house; you need his own wish to do that. This is the point where communication starts. It’s bhakti. The first stage is your wish to service somehow, to make an impression, to be liked. Then He might open the door and let you in the lobby; then you might be allowed into the living-room or even the bedroom. When the soul gets into His bedroom Krishna might say: Sorry, I made the tea and locked the door. That’s why Krishna says there’s no way back from there. These are different degrees of bhakti, different kind of close communication. Rupa Goswami lists a number of bhakti degrees, when you are already ‘in the house’, when you’ve taken the ashraya refuge.

LISTENER: And when they observe various austerities and get divine blessings?

BHARATI MAHARAJ: For example, when Hiranyakashipu pacified his body he achieved the point when stars begin to fade, i.e. gods started losing their position, were going down to earth, and asked Brahma for protection; Brahma had to grant the demon his blessing, due to such severe austerities, but the blessing was limited; when the demon asked Brahma to make him immortal, Brahma said he couldn’t guarantee that: When I die and the death comes to you who you would refer to? Hiranyakashipu decided to list, in the contract, all possible cases of insurance. This was the case when Brahma descended to manage all the procedure himself.

As to Vishnu, He never comes under pressure of someone in austerity.  Vishnu might come when gods that experience sufferings ask Him to. They ask Him to descend because of the demons that might destroy the universe; he might send a ‘bug’ capable to crush the whole system.  Of course, Vishnu might also say: You know I can hardly notice disappearance of your universe because I’ve got countless number of them. He, nevertheless, favors those that pray Him for help. In fact, these are external reasons. We’ve read about that. Krishnadas says that there’re formal reasons for the Lord to descend; that is when He is asked to descend, when the world is in disorder. It’s dharma; the word dharma is often translated as ‘religion’: ‘Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice…’ It’s not religious practice; it’s the order which declines. Gods sustain the order and when it goes corrupt the Lord descends. Krishnadas explains it as a formal reason because the order breaks in a strange way, when the Lord just wants to come down. Sometimes He wants others to see Him having fun; He might want to send selfies to the Instagram. Once He has such a desire, the order, for a reason unknown, turns into disorder. Krishnadas explains there are essential reasons for the Lord’s descent and formal, external ones. Krishna, in the Bhagavad Gita (4.8), says: ‘To deliver the pious and annihilate the miscreants… I Myself appear, millennium after millennium’. Basing on this verse, we can come to a conclusion: once things are out of order Krishna comes. Krishnadas explains again: Krishna wants to come that’s why disorder occurs.

Remember, Charlie Chaplin featuring a glasscutter who was so poor that decided to break windows, in the dark night. Imagine, Krishna gets bored and violates the order breaking windows here and there, to draw attention to His Personality; then He is asked to come and restore the windows and He says He has just the needed number or amount of glass, to fix exactly the broken ones. In the film, Charlie Chaplin’s character was exposed because he could immediately find glass of the needed size and amount. Krishna makes a great smash and afterwards comes to restore and repair things, and they are so much grateful to Him.

Translator Elizabeth D.

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