Шри Чайтанья Чаритамрита. Ади-Лила, Глава 2. Стихи 15-25. Чтение и комментарии | Лекция Б.Ч. Бхарати Свами (Александр Драгилев) от 22 августа 2017 года
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Сурья — солнечный бог
ADI-LILA. Chapter 2. Verses 15-25. Reading and comments
Bhakti Chaitanya Bharati Swami, August 22, 2017
BHARATI MAHARAJ: Chapter 2, Verse 15. Krishnadas Kaviraj continues quoting various texts from the Holy Scriptures to confirm his idea that Sri Chaitanya is the Supreme Lord/Absolute/Godhead in personal.
All conceivable variety comes from impersonal indiscrete serene radiance streaming from the body of self-existent Govinda, the Possessor of senses.
‘I bow down before Govinda, my Lord, by whose grace I, Brahma, was able to create the Universe.’
The following text comes from the Bhagavatam. ‘ The renounced silencers, naked, holy fools, and hermits able to hold and direct the semen to the top of the head find eternal refuge in the infinite radiance of the Spirit.’ (Srimad-Bhagavatam: 11.6.47)
He whom the enlightened yogis name the Super Soul abiding in all living beings is the perfect manifestation of Govinda.
Here, Krishnadas is saying that the Super Soul consciously holds every entity, object, and living being; the Super Soul is amsha, i.e. part of Govinda’s body, His partial form. Once again,
He whom the enlightened yogis name the Super Soul abiding in all beings is the perfect manifestation of Govinda.
Supreme Lord Govinda manifests Himself in all living beings like the Sun reflecting in countless gems.
The next text is from the Bhagavad-Gita.
‘What need is there, my friend, for detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support the entire universe.’
Here in the Gita, Krishna uses the same term amsha: ekamshena sthito jagat. Sthit means to support, jagat is the universe. With only one tiny part of Himself, the Lord supports the whole universe. What is this tiny part? It is Paramatma or the Super Soul, observer Who observes and holds in His mind all entities, subjects, objects, and living beings.
Krishnadas takes the next text from the Bhagavatam.
‘And now when I am dying the enmity ends, friends and enemies are no more for me, good and evil are equal for me, I beg Krishna Who is the heart of every living being, the One and Only like the Sun though different in the eye of the viewer, not to conceal Himself under the deceptive veil from His devoted child.’ (Srimad-Bhagavatam: 1.9.42)
Who’s saying this?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: It’s obviously Bhishma giving instructions on his death bed. This is his last will when he is asking Krishna to take away His veil so that Bhishma could see the feet of the Lord when he leaves the world of illusion. The last line of this verse reads samadhi-gato ‘smi vidhuta-bheda-mohah. Bheda-mohah is duality, variety. Philosophy of Mahaprabhu is named achiytya-bheda-abheda, i.e. inconceivable simultaneous duality and singularity. Achiytya means inconceivable; bheda-abheda tattva is philosophy of simultaneous plurality and singularity. The last line of this verse shows Bhishma asking the Lord to take away his perception of this world as plurality because that what illusion is, perception of the world as plurality/duality.
We always say all is single. All is a single field or serene pradhana, sort of viscous humus, energy field which is always static while the subject, whether it’s a small individual/djiva or the super djiva, can bring this field to a wobbling state. In the state of wobbling we are getting able to distinguish various waves on the surface which creates the illusion of plurality. When we observe a stormy sea we get the impression that waves are running one on top of the other while, in fact, this is one single water but when disturbed it makes the impression of plurality. This disturbance/excitement occurs when Narayana, the Super Subject, takes a look of that humus and it starts moving; or that could be us, mini subjects that are also able to give impetus to pradhana. The difference is that the Super Soul/ Paramatma never gets charmed by this excitement while we do and we forget that everything is one, and perceive this world as discrete plurality. We perceive object as a non-single-whole. To perceive all as one we must understand that all has one nature and one cause. And that one and only cause is the Supreme Lord in personal. Here, Bhishma is asking, ‘Oh my Lord, let me see You, only then I can stop perceiving the duality’; he is saying that good and evil, enemies and friends are of no matter now, there is no difference between them. He is asking the Lord not disguise Himself under the illusion because when the Lord reveals Himself Bhishma will be able to get rid of illusion.
‘And now when I am dying the enmity ends, friends and enemies are no more for me, good and evil are equal for me, I beg Krishna Who is the heart of every living being, the One and Only like the Sun though different in the eye of the viewer, not to conceal Himself under the deceptive veil from His devoted child.’
Having quoted Bhishma’s words Krishnadas continues in his own words:
That very Govinda descended now into this world in the image of noble Chaitanya Gosanya, the most merciful Savior of suffering souls.
Narayana, master of the Goddess of Fortune, King of the kings, and Lord of the plane beyond existence is opulent with His six perfections.
The Vedas, Bhagavata-Purana, and other Scriptures describe Narayana, the Supreme Truth as One and Only Sweet Absolute.
This is decoding of the concept of Narayana. Literally, Narayana means ‘containing all’. Nara generally means a man but here it suggests a conscious entity; yana is a water pool, a big water container or reservoir. Narayana is a water container holding all entities. The ancient Greeks would say, a man is the measure of all things, and here a man doesn’t stand for a human being with two legs and two hands but a man as an observer. An observer is the measure of all things. Objects look like big or small, green or yellow, round or square, and they look so only because they are observed so by a human being, animal, etc. The measure of all things is the observer and Narayana means ‘the observer containing all other observers’. Provided that nara is an observing person, narayana is who contains all nara(s). He is defined as incomparable, i.e. nothing compares to Him in volume, size, etc., and unsurpassed, i.e. nothing can surpass Him. Incomparable also means that there is no substitution to Him. As one of the former state leaders claimed, there is no such thing as an indispensable person. He gets attached to a person or creature because we want something from them, because they can add something we lack. We get attached not because they are so special but because we are in need of something they could give us. When they go away/disappear we can find a similar substitution able to fulfill the same function. You can always find someone else instead of bygones. There is nothing incomparable or indispensable in this world except Narayana; you cannot really find any substitution to Him. No other entity can function as Lord Narayana and this means that He is the incomparable and unsurpassed One. Then, Krishnadas explains that Narayana is Sri Chaitanya, that very Nimai Pandit.
LISTENER: Maharaj, and why they call Vishnu by the name Narayana?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: They name the Supreme Lord anyway. All names of the Supreme Lord underline a certain trait of His personality, one of His peculiarities. Vishnu means the Almighty sustaining all and everything. Narayana is He who contains all. These are almost similar functions, however, with some difference. Vishnu, Narayana… Lakshmipati, the Possessor of Fortune, is not seeking luck as we do but He is pursued by luck. Parabrahman, Govinda, Rama are also names of the Lord reflecting His certain feature, part of His personality or a particular trait of His character. You can read about it in Sahasrana Vishnu Nama, the book describing 1008 names of the Lord; it also tells that this list is not complete.
LISTENER: Maharaj, is it possible to define Narayana as the first One to set margins, i.e. He starts making borders and waves out of that humus which is the single whole?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: He does this by looking, not contacting. His look slightly touches the humus while He does not get in touch with it. Not getting in touch means He is not affected at all. When we say that material nature guna(s) don’t influence Him we assume that He does not adopt their qualities. When we look/watch a certain object we’re influenced by it; we get excited or, on the contrary, calm down looking at certain things. We are affected somehow. For instance, observing the environment we believe we are mortal because all seen objects have their start and end. Looking at them we think that we too, have the start and the end because we were born at a certain time and will die some time. This is illusion/maya which makes us think that we are like the things we observe. Unlike us, the Lord does not depend on the things He observes. He is self-existent, as we have already read, i.e. He acts on His own, beyond any external affection. ‘Spontaneous’ is also one of His definitions. He does what He wants, beyond circumstances, while our mode of actions is combined; we can also act as we wish but, to a greater extend, we act under circumstances, i.e. are affected by external things and concepts.
Verse 25. Devoted servitors of the Truth can see the Truth in the same way celestial deities can see the Sun God.
Celestial deities can see Surya riding his chariot. I should say here that Surya is a duty. Any person who gets into that chariot becomes Surya. Under different scriptures, the radiance coming from his chariot or the crown is so strong and unbearable for a human being that we cannot perceive the contours of the Sun god, we can only see the brightest shining of this ‘headlights’. That’s what human vision allows. Gods can see Surya because their vision is perfect. When you drive at night, animals get stunned seeing the headlights; blinded by the lights, they are petrified and are knocked down by the car. Just like these animals, we see Surya as a huge blinding light and don’t see the Sun under this light veil. A human eye is not able to perceive Surya. There are eleven Surya(s); they rotate eleven times per year.
LISTENER: Why is it not twelve?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: They change each other eleven times. You cannot drive this chariot the whole year round. It is the Aditya family that rule now; they also have another name, the Devagata. They are scions of Aditya and Kashyapa Muni; they decide together who will ride the chariot next month to light the Universe and the flat, I beg your pardon, Earth. In Canto 5, you can read about the vertical axis at one end lying on top of Mount Sumeru; its other end rests on the Antariksha mountain range which bends around the Earth. The Sun god is riding on this axis like a play horse on a carousel but it’s not a perfect circle, there’s a slight oval offset from Sumeru. If you’re interested in the Earth anatomy read chapters 20-21 of Canto 5; the anatomy of the Universe is described there.
Yesterday, I spoke a bit on that and will repeat now for those who were not with us. It is public knowledge that the Sun eclipse occurs regularly and the Earth, the Earth ball goes round the Sun ball and the Moon ball rotates around the Earth. But public knowledge scholars cannot explain why all planets, all the ‘balls’ of the solar system go round their own axis and the Moon doesn’t rotate around the Earth at all.
LISTENER: The Moon always faces the Earth on one side.
BHARATI MAHARAJ: It is on one side and the picture is always the same if you look at the Moon from the North or South Pole. If the Moon were a ball we’d see more of it from the northern side. Imagine a ball; when I’m watching it from top the view is wider; the view from the lower level must be different. But the picture we can see never changes. I don’t know whether the Earth is flat or a globe but the Moon is undoubtedly flat like a pancake which becomes obvious when you move diametrically and its pattern never changes. If it’s a globe/ball the pattern seen from the bottom/south will differ from the one seen from the top/north, and the top one will give you a wider view. Okay, let the Earth be a globe but anyway there is a pancake flying around it or a pan with carters, an aluminum pan, cold and rusted. So, when this Moon pan stands between the Earth and Sun globes it hides the Sun and we, at a certain moment, can see the solar crown with the black disc inside. They still cannot explain why the Moon casts a perfect shadow on the Sun, millimeter by millimeter. How this can happen? Okay, let it be by chance. Do you believe in billions of chances? If the Moon ball were a bit smaller I could see both the Sun and its crown or, vice versa, if it were a bit larger I couldn’t see the crown. But it exactly fits the Sun size and shuts it down.
Apparently, we are religious fanatics and believe that Rahu, the beheaded demon (or is it Ketu?) swallows the Sun and the Sun falls out from the head because the demon has no body. The curious thing is that every eclipse of the Sun has its own trajectory, where the eclipse is seen. The Sun takes a certain trajectory from the point where the eclipse starts to the points where it finishes. For example, the eclipse starts in LA where we can see it and comes to the end in NYC, contingently, so every eclipse has its own trajectory/path. You cannot see the total solar eclipse from everywhere. It can be observed, at first, from one point and from some other point, in the end. Logically, this trajectory must be direct; the Sun is closed, moves a direct path, and is open again. But this path is zigzagging. Since the time the observations started, in the Middle Ages, 15 eclipses were registered when both the Sun and the Moon were visible in the sky. That means the Sun was not obscured by the Moon. You can have a look in Wikipedia. All 15 events were officially registered. One of the most notable occurred back in 1860, when the Moon was visible and the Sun hidden.
LISTENER: How do they explain this?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: They don’t. No comments regarding these 15 events with the Moon. So, the Sun obscured by the Moon doesn’t take the direct trajectory but makes certain curves. If we sum up total eclipse number occurring irregularly every 10, 5… years, it turns out that the path of the total eclipse starts at the point where the previous eclipse ends. If we take that contingent eclipse which started in LA and ended in NYC then the next one will start in NYC and end somewhere in the Atlantic. Hence, if we consider the Earth a globe, the question arises why the Sun wanders in zigzags. If we do not consider it a globe we decompose the Earth taking the North Pole as a centre and make it flat then this zigzag trajectory becomes a circles somehow. Thus, it becomes clear that the Sun circles the Earth, provided the Earth is flat. You cannot explain why the Sun makes those zigzags from the point of the globe Sun.
Surya, as well as all other gods, decay in strength regularly. Reducing in strength depends on lacking devotion to the Supreme Lord. Gods might get too proud of themselves which usually happens after taking a soma drink; then they believe they are almighty, they can do whatever, and as a result they lose their strength. That’s the moment demons Rahu and Ketu utilize to devour Surya. Watching that, other gods come to and start praying Vishnu for help. Meanwhile, Rahu is losing the swallowed Sun. Same thing might occur to Chandra.
This phenomenon demands a philosophical approach. Gods and demons can be compared with metal and corrosion. Corrosion is a natural decay of metal. When you place metal into an aggressive environment, water or acid, corrosion occurs naturally. For gods, feeling proud is similar to acid environment. This happens with Indra and with Brahma. As soon as it happens demons start attacking. Krishna says He doesn’t care whether it’s demons or gods, purity or corrosion. Stars are apt to go out too, I must tell you, but we cannot witness it within our tiny lives. Stars go out, in the end of manvantara, as well as gods; all go out into the body of Brahma. When Brahma goes to sleep nothing is here anymore, neither gods nor stars, nor the Earth or lower and upper realms. All living creatures enter the body of sleeping Brahma and when he wakes up they come out again, gods appear, and stars become visible. You can find the description in Canto 2 of the Bhagavatam.
LISTENER: Do gods and deities have karma?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: Gods and deities/celestial dwellers are not the same lot. In Canto 3, there is a big list of dwellers of the huge ‘hostel’ called universe. The universe is a populated space, including gods and celestials. Celestials are djivas that deserve heavenly dwelling. When their virtues fade they return to the middle plane to act in a good and bad way, and accordingly, they go to heaven or hell to enjoy life or suffer, and again all ends up on the Earth. That’s why this is called samsara, the circle of rebirth. A certain djiva might appear as Brahma and rule the whole universe but such ‘rebirth’ demands 100 sinless life times.
LISTENER: Sinless in what way?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: Sinless under the Lord’s law, i.e. a person must act not inflicting any harm to others.
LISTENER: You are born into the world with a certain karma and you should work it out.
BHARATI MAHARAJ: Yes, you do and you make others suffer. That’s why this ‘Brahma position’ often stays vacant in some universes. With no candidacies for Brahma, the Lord has to act as Brahma; Vishnu takes the role of Brahma.
LISTENER: A certain djiva appears to become Brahma and then deteriorates… How does it happen?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: This breaking bad djiva must restrain from sin 100 lives in a row. Under his karma this djiva can act violently but this violence is auspicious for the offended one. For example, consider sacrifice offering when the murdered one gets freedom. We’ve discussed earlier cases when murder is not considered sinful. What is a murder? It’s when you take away someone’s body. If I take away your teddy bear you call it robbery and I must be liable for that. What if I offer you a new Porsche car instead? Everything is cancelled with your interest, isn’t it? Similarly, if you take away someone’s body and doing so let this person free, isn’t it a fair compensation?
LISTENER: What about the animals?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: In the animal form, djivas don’t accomplish karma. Deprived of any choice, they just obey, follow their nature. A tiger eats rabbits because it has no choice and is not responsible for it. Karma suggests you choose between good and evil and act accordingly. […] A human being has a sensible experience and can decide how to behave; an animal cannot do that, it has to move with four legs, eat prey, etc., which is pure in the face of God, even if it eats Whiskas produced of the exquisite beef. It’s your sin if you feed your cat with beef.
LISTENER: So, those standing lower than human beings work out their previous sinful lives in the human form and those higher enjoy themselves.
BHARATI MAHARAJ: Right. Only Earth dwelling human being have karma. A cat eating Whiskas stays pure, contrary to a person who kills the cow to feed the cat. […]
LISTENER: Do gods have the choice, to enjoy the life or not to?
BHARATI MAHARAJ: For them, it is natural to follow the Lord’s law. We have to enforce ourselves to perform yagya, to chant, etc. For us, it’s an enormous endeavor, both spiritual and physical. Though it’s natural for gods, negligence might occur. We can read that Krishna gave freedom to two deities who spent thousands of years in the form of trees. Afterwards, they told Krishna that once they were angels; they enjoyed sexual games with their girlfriends, in a lake or pond, when a sage was passing by; they ignored the sage and continued playing, so the sage cursed them. This is quite possible although is a parable. Also, when the Lord descends on the Earth gods pray to be overthrown from the heavenly heights, for they wish to be born on the Earth when the Lord is there. When the Lord descends, during the kali-yuga, they queue for the chance to be nearby. […]
Translator Elizabeth D.